How is organizational agility measured?
I can only give you my opinion here. I think that one place to start looking is the cadence of processes. If, for example, you are releasing software every six months, perhaps you could release it every three months. If, for example, your budgeting process is annual and wrapped up with strategy, perhaps you could do it quarterly.
I think the idea underlying agile is that as the context or the environment changes, we want our processes to keep up. And therefore we may need to run some processes in a more lightweight and a faster cadence than we are used to. So I think that might be one of the ways to measure agility.
I think you can also look at actual outcomes that are satisfying customer needs. It could certainly be that you're able to satisfy customer needs without putting any Agile processes into place. But if someone does that sustainably I'd be very interested to hear about it!
Is agility a leadership competency?
I think the underlying mindset that enables agility — what Carol Dweck calls adaptive mindset, or learning mindset — is very much a leadership competency. And in fact, Pat Reed, who I mentioned earlier, along with Agile signatory Jim Highsmith established in the mid 2000s a course at Berkeley University in California, specifically on this topic, agile leadership, exploring how we apply Agile principles to leadership which still runs to this day.
We also see in the leadership literature as well that, from the beginning of the 20th century, when conceptions of leadership were very much so-called "Great man" theories that there has been an evolution in the way we think about leadership.
We've seen a lot of new forms of leadership emerge through research in the last century, such as "empathetic" leadership or "empowering" leadership, or "servant" leadership. And I think all of these conceptions speak to an acknowledgement that leadership is not just about telling people what to do, or giving commands or controlling things, but also about how one might support a team so that they can become a high-performing team, a team that's able to deliver breakthrough results.
I think there's a lot there, and many other authors have had much more to say on this topic. I'd recommend Jim Highsmith's book on Adaptive Ladership.